code-switching_concord

  • test: participants have to rate a series of experimental structures using a 1-to-4 scale presented via emoticon faces (1 = sounds bad; 4 = sounds good). The structures involve English/Spanish code-switching at the DP level:
    聽 聽 聽The house is in the bosque
    聽 聽 聽Se est谩n mirando el face
    聽 聽 聽El gato est谩 junto a la house
  • implementation: offline
  • languages: English, Spanish
  • participants
    聽 聽 聽children: 32 (L1 Spanish-heritage English); 43 (L1 English-heritage Spanish); 54 (L1 Spanish-L2 English); 22 (L2 Spanish)
    聽 聽 聽adults: 8 (L1 Spanish-heritage English); 45 (L1 English-heritage Spanish); 106 (L1 Spanish-L2 English)
  • objective: to determine the preference for the Spanish or the English functional category in code-switched constructions as well as gender preferences in the case of Spanish determiner switches; and to link these preferences to the concept of language dominance and to how features are represented in the bilingual mind

code-switching_agreement

  • test: participants have to rate a series of experimental structures using a 1-to-4 scale presented via emoticon faces (1 = sounds bad; 4 = sounds good). The structures involve English/Spanish code-switching at 2 grammatical points:
    聽 聽 聽DP subject + copula verb with adjective
    聽 聽 聽The house es bonita / bonito
    聽 聽 聽La casa is nice
    聽 聽 聽DP or pronominal subject + verb
    聽 聽 聽La se帽ora / Ella hugs her sister
    聽 聽 聽The teacher / She lee una revista
  • implementation: offline
  • languages: English, Spanish
  • participants
    聽 聽 聽children: 33 (L1 Spanish, heritage English); 43 (L1 English, heritage Spanish);
    22 (L1 English-L2 Spanish)
    聽 聽 聽adults: 45 (L1 English, heritage Spanish); 8 (L1 Spanish, heritage English);
    110 (L1 Spanish-L2 English)
  • objective: to determine how gender and person features shape the code-switching preferences of different groups of bilinguals and to link these preferences to the concept of language dominance and to how features are represented in the bilingual mind

code-switching_copula

  • test: participants have to read in silence a series of sentences some of which are in English, some in Spanish and some involve English-Spanish code-switching. Then they have to rate each sentence using a 1-to-4 scale presented via emoticons (1 = very bad; 4 = excellent)
  • implementation: online via Gorilla Experiment Builder (www.gorilla.sc; Anwyl-Irvine et al. 2018)
  • languages: English, Spanish
  • participants
    聽 聽 聽children: 27 (L1 Spanish-L2 English); 5 (L1 Spanish, heritage English)
    聽 聽 聽adults: 35 (L1 Spanish-L2 English)
  • objective: to explore how the properties of the two language systems interact in the mind of the bilingual; in particular, the focus is placed on the directionality of the switch and on the type of implicit gender agreement mechanism in switched copulative constructions with an adjective as subject complement

dative alternation

  • test: participants are presented with a sentence which they have to evaluate using a 1-to-4 scale (1 = very bad; 4 = excellent). The experimental structures involve different types of dative constructions: to-datives and for-datives that alternate as double object constructions:
    聽 聽 聽I told the story to Mary / I told Mary the story
    聽 聽 聽I baked the cake for our mum / I baked our mum a cake
  • implementation: offline and online via Gorilla Experiment Builder (www.gorilla.sc; Anwyl-Irvine et al. 2018)
  • language: English
  • participants
    聽 聽 聽adults: 10 (L1 Spanish-L2 English); 10 (L1 English, control)
  • objective: to address potential crosslinguistic influence effects in the L2 English of L1 Spanish speakers, given that dative alternation is possible in English but not in Spanish; and to link these effects to the type of dative construction, as well as to the participants鈥 L2 proficiency level

objects

  • test: participants are presented with a dialogue between two people, and they have to rate the sentence produced by the second person using a 1-to-4 scale presented via emoticons (1 = very bad; 4 = excellent). The experimental structures involve different types of mono-transitive verbs (i.e., pure versus mixed, simple versus phrasal) and different types of direct object forms (i.e., determiner phrases, overt pronouns, and null pronouns) and direct object reference (i.e., [+/- generic]):
    聽 聽 聽John loves pets.聽 聽 聽He has a dog.
    聽 聽 聽The umbrella is wet.聽 聽 聽Just put it by the door.
    聽 聽 聽My laptop doesn鈥檛 work.聽 聽 聽He can repair.
    聽 聽 聽It is very hot today.聽 聽 聽Then, take off your jacket.
    聽 聽 聽Who invented this story?聽 聽 聽I made it up.
    聽 聽 聽Are you watching TV?聽 聽 聽No, you can turn off.
    聽 聽 聽What are you doing?聽 聽 聽We are writing a story.
    聽 聽 聽Did you understand Sarah?聽 聽 聽No, I couldn’t hear her.
    聽 聽 聽I have a new book.聽 聽 聽My sister would like to borrow.
    聽 聽 聽The bike is expensive.聽 聽 聽I鈥檓 saving for it.
  • implementation: offline and online via Gorilla Experiment Builder (www.gorilla.sc; Anwyl-Irvine et al. 2018)
  • language: English
  • participants
    聽 聽 聽adults: 43 (L1 Chinese-L2 English); 10 (L1 English, control)
  • objective: to address potential crosslinguistic influence effects in the L2 English of L1 Chinese speakers, given that null objects are much less restricted in Chinese than in English; and to link these effects to verb type and to verb complexity as well as to the participants鈥 L2 proficiency level

N modification

  • test: participants are presented with a picture and a determiner phrase (DP) that matches the picture, and they have to rate the DP using a 1-to-4 scale presented via emoticons (1 = very bad; 4 = excellent). The experimental structures involve two types of DPs: noun-noun compounds and adjective-noun strings
  • implementation: offline (pen-and-paper); 3-year longitudinal data
  • language: English
  • participants
    聽 聽 聽children: 96 (L1 Spanish-L2 English); 11 (L1 English, control)
  • objective: to analyze word-order issues within the DP involving nouns pre-modified by another noun (NN compounds) and nouns pre-modified by an adjective (Adj+N combinations); to address potential crosslinguistic influence effects in the L2 English of L1 Spanish children; and to link these effects to length of exposure and explicit instruction