The 106 participants in the soraUVALAL corpus were first classified into three groups according to their L1 (Spanish, Danish or Bosnian) and then subclassified into two more groups each, according to the time they have been instructed in the L2 (2 years or 4 years).

Table 1: Participant groups

Participants were recruited following the selection criteria below:

  • both parents and the child had to share the same L1 (Spanish, Bosnian or Danish depending on the group), and none could be a simultaneous bilingual speaker;
  • the L2 of the participants had to be English (if the participants had an L3 which they started learning as part of the curricula during the 3rd or the 4th year of instruction of the L2, they were not excluded from the study; otherwise, they were excluded);
  • the participants had only received instruction in the L2 in educational settings;
  • the participants had received instruction in the L2 for either 2 or 4 years at their primary school;
  • the participants who took part in any exchange programs or lived in an English-speaking country for longer than two weeks were excluded from the study.