CS_repetition

  • test: the participants have to repeat some English/Spanish code-switching structures taken from Fantini (1985) and Deuchar and Quay (2000), and some other structures incorporated specifically into this study
  • languages: English, Spanish
  • participants: 2 simultaneous bilingual children (2;06)
  • objective: to check whether children accept or reject any specific type of code-switching so that we can determine if their behavior is linked to the concept of language dominance

AJT_concord

  • test: participants have to rate a series of experimental structures using a 1-to-4 scale presented via emoticon faces (1 = sounds bad; 4= sounds good). The structures involve English/Spanish code-switching at the DP level:

The house is in the bosque
Se est谩n mirando el face
El gato est谩 junto a la house

  • languages: English, Spanish
  • participants:聽98 children (2L1 English, Spanish);聽48 adults (2L1 English, Spanish); 111 adults (L2 English-L1 Spanish); 8 adults (L2 Spanish)
  • objective: to determine the preference for the Spanish or the English functional category in code-mixed constructions as well as gender preferences in the case of Spanish determiners; and to link these preferences to the concept of language dominance and to how features are represented in the bilingual mind

AJT_agreeement

  • test: participants have to rate a series of experimental structures using a 1-to-4 scale presented via emoticon faces (1 = sounds bad; 4= sounds good). The structures involve English/Spanish code-switching at 2 grammatical points:

DP subject + copula verb with adjective

The house聽es bonita / bonito
La casa聽is nice

DP or pronominal subject + verb

La se帽ora / Ella聽hugs her sister
The teacher / She聽lee una revista

  • languages:聽English, Spanish
  • participants:聽101 children (2L1 English, Spanish); 49 children (L2 English-L1 Spanish);聽48 adults (2L1 English, Spanish); 111 adults (L2 English-L1 Spanish); 8 adults (L2 Spanish)
  • objective:聽to determine how gender and person features shape the code-switching preferences of different聽groups of bilinguals and to link these preferences to the concept of language dominance and to how features are represented in the bilingual mind

production_concord & agreement

  • test:聽participants have to complete sentences using either a Spanish determiner or a Spanish adjective, which will result in structures involving code-switching at the level of the DP or in copula constructions, respectively:

Hay nubes en __聽(el/la) sky
Ha puesto una cortina en __聽(el/la) window

That book is __ (amarillo/amarilla)
That face is ___ (rojo/roja)

  • languages:聽English, Spanish
  • participants:87 children (2L1 English, Spanish); 38 children (L2 English-L1 Spanish);聽48 adults (2L1 English, Spanish); 53 adults (L2 English-L1 Spanish); 8 adults (L2 Spanish)
  • objective:聽to determine the preference for the Spanish or the English functional category in code-switched constructions as well as gender preferences in the case of Spanish determiners and to link these preferences to the concept of language dominance and to how features are represented in the bilingual mind